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What Is The Peop Model Person

The Person – Environment – Occupation (PEO) Model – InfOT

The Person-Environment-Occupation Performance model was first developed in 1985 by Baum and Christiansen during the time when the biomedical model was widely used.

The biomedical model is extremely clinician-based and only focuses on the physical processes and doesnt consider the persons individual factors. The PEOP model, however, focuses heavily on the client or patient.

At its core, the PEOP considers how environmental factors affect a clients daily activities or occupations. What separates the PEOP from other models even more is that it groups these factors into either intrinsic or extrinsic factors.

The PEOP utilizes a top-down, or holistic, approach in evaluating a clients current situation, which demonstrates a more holistic approach to care. Unlike the biomedical approach which just focuses on treating a symptom, the PEOP examines all the internal and external factors that may be affecting the client.

Why Not To Use The Peop In Practice:

  • There is currently only minimal research on validity or reliability
  • It focuses more on long-term outcomes, as opposed to short-term outcomes


Models are the lenses in which occupational therapists look through when evaluating and treating patients or clients. The person-environment-occupation performance model is a top-down, holistic model which focuses on how the environment shapes a persons occupational performance. This can be an extremely useful model for determining what treatments to use and how to best implement them for the best long-term outcomes for your patients or clients.

Wed love to know: Do you use the PEOP model? What are your thoughts on this model versus others? Let us know in the comments!

Can People Do Universal Design Without The Peo

At the time of this writing, there is no standard universal design process. Theres no requirement to use any model like the PEO. The only way to gauge whether universal design has been executed successfully is to determine if anyone is excluded from using a design.

The PEO Model is useful because it forces us to look beyond design features and characteristics. When we truly understand the functional diversity of the people who may benefit from a design, in addition to the variety of ways those people can use and interact with a design, and those variables influence the design itself, only then will we be able to ensure that what we create will be welcoming to people affected by disability.

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Analyzing And Optimizing Occupational Performance Using Peo

The following case scenario was developed by one the authors in partnership with a worker who gave permission to use this case for the purposes of demonstrating the use of the PEO. The following case highlights typical considerations for how audiologists and occupational therapists can work collaboratively with workplaces to identify and reflect on occupational performance issues needed to generate collaborative solutions using the PEO model. Table 1 outlines the specific relationships across the PEO dimensions that can be maximized to improve or enable the occupational performance of workers with hearing loss.

What Is The Kawa River Model

Use of the Person

The Kawa Model is a therapeutic method developed in Japan by occupational therapists. Kawa is the Japanese word for river . The Kawa Model uses the natural metaphor of a river to depict ones life journey. The varying and chronological experience of life is like a river , flowing from the high lands down to the ocean.

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Peo Model As Analytic Tool

The PEO model16 is focused on the relationships and congruence of three dimensions: person, environment, and occupation.

Occupation refers to any type of daily occupation such as self-care activities, , leisure activities, , learning activities , and work activities . Performance of occupations or activities important to the person are optimal when the aspects of the person, the environment and the occupation are aligned and interact to support human occupation. There are an array of dimensions and complexities that are considered in understanding occupational performance. Occupational performance characterizes how people function in activities or the roles that people have in everyday life such as at school, at work, at home and in the community. Occupational performance is fluid and dynamic and is a subjective experience and not prescriptive. Underlying assumptions about occupational performance are that the relationships among P-E-O are continuous across time and space and they are fluid and dynamic. PEO relationships and interactions can change to improve performance and they are highly contextualized. As such individuals perceive their performance subjectively and experientially. The more there is crossover and overlap between the three dimensions the more the occupational performance is optimized. This is also referred to as the maximizing of congruence or fit across dimensions.

How The Peo Helps Us Design Programs Universally

Similarly to the design process of homes, the PEO Model is incredibly useful for program design. If we want to accurately be able to say this program is designed for people of all ages and abilities, that means we not only have to be able to identify the full diversity of who we want to be able to participate, but the different methods those people may utilize to participate. Without this knowledge, it will be difficult to successfully accommodate some people and create a welcoming program environment.

Its common knowledge that physical activity is good for ones health, but there are less obvious benefits to participating in an activity alongside others, especially for individuals with disabilities. These can include the development of friendships, increased self-image via acceptance into community, increased self-esteem, greater self-sufficiency, decreased negative stereotypes, and more . Furthermore, the social benefits of recreation may be more impactful than the physical or psychological benefits .

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The Peo Model Of Occupational Performance And Universal Design

The Person-Environment-Occupation Model of Occupational Performance comes from the field of occupational therapy and helps identify the relationships between a person, an environment, and occupations . These relationships support and enhance a persons ability interestingly, thats what universal design is all about.

The relationship between each helps us understand the quality of occupational performance that results at the intersection of each component of the PEO. Our goal in every universal design process should be to maximize the fit between each component, which will optimize the functionality for all intended users.

What Are Models Of Practice In Occupational Therapy

PEO & PEOP Occupation Based Models Pt 1 – Applied Occupational Theory UIndy

Many different models of the OT process have been developed, and they each attempt to guide a therapist through the stages of applying occupational theory to a practical client situation. CMOP-E Canadian Model of Occupational Performance & Engagement. MOHO Model of Human Occupation. MoCA Model of Creative Ability.

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Intrinsic Factors In The Peop Model

Intrinsic factors include

  • Physiological sleep, strength, flexibility, stress, nutrition
  • Cognitive memory, reasoning, attention
  • Spiritual what has meaning to the person
  • Neurobehavioral motor & sensory input, balance, coordination
  • Psychological personality, self-esteem, self-awareness, motivation

The Environments Role In Disability

The World Health Organization suggests that disability results from mismatched interactions between features of a persons body and features of the society in which he or she lives.

Consider the area of intersection between the circles in the Person-Environment-Occupation Model. If the environment is designed to be a good fit for all intended users and the activities intended to be performed, then we can say that the design ENABLES people.

On the flip side, if theres a poor Person-Environment-Occupation fit, then we can say that the design DISABLES people. We ought to take the following statement by the WHO seriously when designing things.

Overcoming the difficulties faced by people with disabilities requires interventions to remove environmental and social barriers.

Lets not exclude people because of health problems that cant be changed. The way things are designed can be changed. Thats what we need to focus on. Have you seen the video of Zach Anner and his quest to get a rainbow bagel? This is well worth 7 minutes of your time:

Zach experiences different types of environmental barriers. Some are physical, and some are attitudinal. Sure, he makes it look funny, but you can see how the environment plays a significant role in successfully completing tasks that typically-abled folks wouldnt think twice about.

An hour to get outside of his hotel? RIDICULOUS. Anyway

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Model Of Occupational Wholeness

  • The Model of Occupational Wholeness focuses on the four dimensions of occupation: doing, being, becoming, and belonging, as well as how these dimensions lead to an individuals wholeness, health, and wellbeing. This model is illustrated by triangles. A black proportionate triangle illustrates the hypothetical ideal relationship between doing , being, become, and becoming .

Extrinsic Factors In The Peop Model


Extrinsic factors include

  • Social support emotional support from close relationships
  • Culture & values customs, beliefs, traditions
  • Social & economic systems political or economic policies affecting health or employment
  • Built environment & technology buildings, public spaces, tools
  • Natural environment climate, terrain

The PEOP model uses a biopsychosocial approach, which takes into account the emotional, physical, and social factors that may influence a persons occupational performance. This is the heart of occupational therapy, where practitioners consider the entire person during intervention instead of just their deficit areas.

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Achieving Inclusion In The Workplace For Workers With Hearing Loss

Currently, employers are confronted with several significant pressures to expand their approach to recruitment and retention of skilled talent. First, they are faced with a tough labour market25 many employers are experiencing job vacancies for more than three months at a time. Second, Canadian employers are expected to fulfill a duty to accommodate to the point of undue hardship when approached by an employee living with a disability.26 Efforts to support inclusion are also consistent with emerging legislation on principles of Accessibility.27 Canadian employers have a legal obligation and need to embrace new ways of fulfilling production targets and business objectives. Finally, disability insurance costs are projected to rise as the economy continues to grow, inspiring employers to seek ways to control costs.28 These three elements are shaping the need for greater receptivity of creative solutions for both common and complex inclusion challenges. The authors of this paper contend that given the current context more and more employers will turn to healthcare professionals for support. Professionals who can offer an interprofessional approach are needed who can respond to workplace needs.

Integrating The Peop Model Into Practice

When using the PEOP in occupational therapy practice, the therapist closely examines the clients history and establishes their short and long-term goals, which highlights the clients areas of weakness and strength.

It is important to complete a thorough history of the client during the evaluation, as even small details can have a huge impact on the course of treatment and outcomes.

Occupational therapists in any setting, from pediatrics to older adults, can incorporate the PEOP model into their practice. For the most success, OT practitioners will want to continually include their client in active and collaborative goal setting and planning.

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The Peo Shows Us Why Universal Design Is Difficult

Consider the definition of universal design:

Design thats usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.

Ron Mace, 1985

Design in this conversation is primarily the environment part of the PEO Model. If theres a desire to create a design that provides optimal function for all people, its critical to have a deep understanding of all intended users and all the different ways those users can interact with a design. Without that knowledge, it wont be possible to identify potential barriers to usability.

This is REALLY difficult, especially because we each have different biases and understandings of how disability affects people. If bias gets foothold in the universal design process, it will result in some degree of exclusion.

Main Concepts And Assumptions Of The Peo Model

PEO vs. CMOP-E TIPS & TRICKS!! Understanding and applying Occupational Therapy (OT) models.
A person is a human being with qualities, attributes, abilities and skills who is able to take part in many roles . A person is ever changing, developing and interacting with the environment while performing occupations The environment is made up of the physical, social, cultural, institutional and socio-economic domains . The environment is the context at which the person takes part in occupations .An occupation is a group an activities or a tasks that are meaningful and purposeful to the person and meets their needs . Occupations are essential for living and are considered to meet the person’s needs within their roles and enviroment .Temporal aspects of the PEO model emphasise that interactions between the person, environment and occupations will vary over a lifetime .The dynamic results of the transaction between the person, enviroment and occupation is known as occupational performance . Occupational performance can be measured both objectively and subjectively .The person-environment-occupation fit is the idea that the person, enviroment and occupation interact regularly over time and space, where congruence can increase or decrease . The better the fit or compatibility between the person, enviroment and occupation, then the greater the occupational performance .

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Fidlers Life Style Performance Model

  • The Fidlers Life Style Performance Model focuses on knowing and understanding a persons total activity repertoire within the context relevant to his/her life. This model provides practitioners a complete view of the client and his/her environment. It aims to bridge the gaps among the practice, philosophic constructs of holism, personal relevance, and quality of life.

Application Of The Peo Model

Figure 4. Occupational Therapy: The Person-Environment-Occupation Model of Occupational PerformanceLaw, M., Cooper, B., Strong, S., Stewart, D., Rigby, P., & Letts, L., The Person-Environment-Occupation Model: A Transactive Approach to Occupational Performance, Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy pp. 9-23. Copyright © 1996 by SAGE Publications.Reprinted by permission of SAGE Publications, Inc. This material is the exclusive property of the SAGE Publications, Inc. and is protected by copyright and other intellectual property laws. User may not modify, publish, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, display, or in any way exploit any of the content of the file in whole or in part. Permission may be sought for further use from SAGE Publications, Inc., attn. Rights Department, 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360, Email: permissions@sagepub,com. By accessing the file, the User acknowledges and agrees to these terms.

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Lived Environment Life Quality Model

  • The Lived Environment Life Quality Model aims to explicate the ecological complexities in using occupations to optimize quality of life of institutionalized people with dementia. This model focuses on factors that affect clients opportunity in occupational engagement, mainly on the social and physical environmental supports and barriers. It has two main domains, including the lived-environment domain and the Quality of Life domain .

What Is The Peo Model

The Person-Environment-Occupation Model is an occupational therapy model of practice, which was developed in Canada by Mary Law, Barbara Cooper, Susan Strong, Debra Stewart, Patricia Rigby and Lori Letts in 1996. The PEO Model emphasises that there are transactional relationships between the person, environment and occupation throughout lifetime that can affect occupational performance . Essentially, every purposeful or meaningful activity or task that a person performs is an occupation, therefore how well a person can perform an occupation in the environment is known as occupational performance .

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Implications For Ot Practice

There are multiple avenues from which occupational therapists could focus or target, from the person, occupation and environment perspectives to elicit change. Implementation of these interventions has to be within context and at different levels of the environment.

The model accommodates use of a wide repertoire of well-validated instruments developed by other disciplines and occupational therapists. Change outcomes can be measured in terms of occupational performance as the focus of the model is on occupation rather than performance components.

Dynamic Interactional Model Of Cognitive Rehabilitation

  • The dynamic interactional model of cognitive rehabilitation emphasizes that cognition is a continuous product of the dynamic interaction between the individual, task, and environment. Individual factor includes structural capacity , strategies , metacognitive processes and learner characteristics such as motivation and knowledge. These individual factors interact with other factors during information processing and learning.

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Overview: What Is Peop

The first thing to understand is that the PEOP model of occupational therapy and the PEO model are not synonymous. Although both models have some similarities, PEOP holds to a handful of different principles.

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The PEOP model highlights occupational performance as its key feature, which is made up of three interacting components :

  • environment, and

Inevitably, environmental factors will impact a person for better or for worse which determines the occupational performance outcome. If there is a healthy interaction between the person and their environment, then the person will experience success and improved well-being in occupational performance .

Since its original development in 1985, several revisions have been made to make PEOP more client-centered. This means that through a collaborative and supportive relationship between the client and the practitioner, the clients needs and goals are highly vocalized and used in personal narrative form to determine the course of therapeutic care.

How The Peo Helps Us Design Homes Universally

CMOP-E Overview vs. PEO-P Model: Similarities and Differences â OT Dude Occupational Therapy

Our homes have a direct impact on how well we can live our lives, care for ourselves, care for our family, and more. When someone isnt able to take care of their own daily needs because theyre unable to easily use their home, external support is often necessary. This can be a major frustration for the individual, and an extra stressor for anyone assisting. Roles and routines, such as taking care of children and/or pets, are important to many people too. The design of the places we live is often the factor that enables us to successfully do the things that are most important to us.

When designing a home for universal access, the Person-Environment-Occupation model helps us slow down and consider all possible users of the home. We want to accurately be able to say this home is designed for people of all ages and abilities. To do that, we have to not only recognize who people of all ages and abilities includes, but we have to think about all the typical activities that people of all ages and abilities do in a typical home environment. The PEO Model will help designers quickly realize that theres a whole lot more that goes into a universally designed home than a no-step entry, wide doorways, and lever door handles.

The design of our homes needs to support the abilities of people in our communities. Is this really too much to ask?

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